Joint Application Development (JAD) (2022)

Dave Rottmann

MSIS 488

InformationSystems Analysis

When to useJAD
JADParticipants
GenericJAD Life Cycle
Benefits ofJAD
Making JADSuccessful

Conclusion

References

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Joint Applicaton Development (JAD) is aprocess that accelerates the design of information technology solutions. JADuses customer involvement and group dynamics to accurately depict the user'sview of the business need and to jointly develop a solution. Before the adventof JAD, requirements were identified by interviewing stakeholders individually.The ineffectiveness of this interviewing technique, which focused on individualinput rather than group consensus, led to the development of the JADapproach.

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JAD offers a team?orientedapproach to the development of information management solutions that emphasize aconsensus?based problem-solving model. By incorporating facilitated workshopsand emphasizing a spirit of partnership, JAD enables system requirements to bedocumented more quickly and accurately than if a traditional approach were used.JAD combines technology and business needs in a process that is consistent,repeatable, and effective.(19,21)

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History of JAD

Because JAD has evolved overthe years to include such elements as prototyping, CASE, and I?CASE, some peopleconsider it a complete development methodology and have begun to call it "jointapplication development." Unfortunately, the only portions of a genericdevelopment methodology for JAD that were formalized were the definition,analysis, and design portions. The rest of the development was conducted in the"spirit" of JAD, but without the rigor of a defined process.(12,13)

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When to use JAD

ProjectTypes

JAD can be successfully applied to a widerange of projects, including the following:(17)

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>New systems

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Enhancements toexisting systems

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Systemconversions

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Purchase of a system

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Project Characteristics

Not allprojects, however, are good candidates for JAD. An appropriate project exhibitsat least some of the following characteristics:(17)

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Involves many groupsof users whose responsibilities cross traditional department or divisionboundaries

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Is consideredcritical to the future success of the organization

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Involves willingusers

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Is a first-timeproject for the organization

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Has a troubledproject history or relationship between the systems and user organizations

Although the characteristics above describe a good JADcandidate project, all the characteristics should not be present in your firstJAD projects. As the development team and the customer become more comfortablewith the JAD approach, more complex projects can be undertaken.

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Executive Sponsor

The executivesponsor is the person from the customer's organization who has the ultimateauthority to make decisions about the project. The sponsor may be the customer'sproject leader, the CIO, or, in some cases, the CEO. The facilitator works withthe sponsor to get the project started; it is essential, however, that thesponsor make key decisions, not the facilitator.

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The executive sponsor has the followingresponsibilities:

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Accept ultimateauthority and responsibility for the functional area to be addressed by thesystem.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Resolve businesspolicy conflicts by being the ultimate decision?maker.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Honor the results ofthe JAD process.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Set the vision forthe project.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Ensure the projectteam has access to and commitment from the right business user experts.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Communicate customersupport and cooperation.

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The executive sponsor gives the JAD process credibility inthe customer's eyes. During the JAD orientation, the sponsor addresses theentire team to express support for a cooperative effort and to confirm that theJAD process has the corporation's support. The executive sponsor must alsoexpress confidence in the facilitator during the orientation session. Thesponsor's address helps minimize the initial resistance that customerrepresentatives may feel toward participating in the JAD effort.

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The executive sponsor is the only JAD participant whonormally does not attend the JAD sessions. The executive sponsor need only stopin occasionally to show continued interest in and commitment to theprocess.(13,15)

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Facilitator

The success or failure of the JAD process is closely tiedto how well the facilitator handles the session. This person must be highlytrained as a facilitator and must have an excellent working knowledge of thetools and techniques to be used for capturing requirements in the JAD sessions.The facilitator must also be able to communicate effectively with the differentpersonality types present on a JAD team.

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The responsibilities of JAD facilitators include thefollowing:

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Organize andschedule JAD activities.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Guide the JADsessions.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Mediate disputes.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Encourageparticipation.

(Video) JAD - Joint Application Development

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Maintain focus.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Enable thedecision?making process by summarizing the discussions.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Have no vestedinterest in the outcome of the session.

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It is critical that the facilitator be impartial and have novested interest in the outcome of the session. Selecting the facilitator fromthe IT provider's organization interferes with the goal of creating a sense of"team spirit" among the participants.Despite the key role the facilitator plays in aJAD session, Andrews and Leventhal point out that the focus of attention shouldalways be on the JAD process itself, not the individual facilitator.

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There is a school of thought that trained facilitators cansuccessfully facilitate meetings regardless of the subject matter or theirfamiliarity with it. This does not apply, however, to facilitating meetings tobuild information systems. A successful IS facilitator needs to know how andwhen to ask the right questions, and be able to identify when something does notsound right.

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Howard Fallon, in How to Implement Information Systems andLive to Tell About It, states, "The complexity of information systemsdemands a specialized facilitator. Professionals in our industry cannot trustsomeone who doesn't understand information systems to direct important [JAD]sessions. As the facilitator, you need to know what the [JAD] sessionparticipants are trying to accomplish technologically."(1,14,22)

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User

Users have the following responsibilities in the JADprocess:(11)

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Serve as the mainfocus of JAD (users make up 65 percent to 75 percent of the total group).

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Provide businessexpertise.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Represent thestrategic, tactical, or operational direction of the business.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Represent all majoruser groups or factions affected by the project.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Represent multiplelevels of the organization.

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IT Representative

IT representatives lend technical advice when it isrequired, help develop logical models and specifications, and build theprototype. To perform these tasks, they must be knowledgeable about the JADprocess and the tools and methods being used. IT representatives are typicallysome of the key developers of the system. They use the JAD opportunity to becomeexperts in the customer's business functions. Whatever their level of expertise,however, they must not try to force the decision?making process, but ratherassist in developing theuser's view of the solution.(15)

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IT representatives have the following responsibilities in theJAD process:

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Help customer turnideas into models of business requirements.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Ensure alltechnological constraints are represented.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Develop anunderstanding of user business goals, priorities, and strategies.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Represent jobfunctions such as data administration, business analysis, programming,prototyping, and production/operations management.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Ensure a solutionthat is realistic for the budget, can be delivered when needed, and takesadvantage of available technology most effectively.

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Scribe

The scribe participates in JAD discussions to clarifypoints and capture them correctly. The scribe may ask the facilitator to stopthe process whenever necessary to review, obtain clarifications, or offerrephrasing. The scribe should not be required to participate in the ongoingdiscussions as an IT representative or user representative. The scribe shouldnever double as the facilitator. A facilitator who is also acting as the scribecan cause the JAD sessions to bog down significantly.(15)

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Scribes have the following responsibilities in the JADprocess:

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Ensure that theresults of JAD sessions are documented and delivered as planned.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Serve as a partnerto the facilitator before, during, and after the workshop.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Provide referenceand review information for the facilitator.

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Observer

An observer has the following responsibilities in the JADprocess:

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Watch andlisten.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Learn about userneeds and workshop decisions.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Interact with theparticipants and facilitator only during breaks or before and aftersessions.

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Generic JAD Life Cycle

Planning/Definition

To complete the Planning stage, perform the followingtasks:

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Designate theexecutive sponsor.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Establish the needfor the system.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Select team membersfor the definition component.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Define the scope ofthe session.

These are generic stages of a JAD and do not indicate anyspecific methodology. Many books have been written on JAD, and each tends todescribe JAD stages and phases in its own way, but the concepts are similar.

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Planning and Definition can be combined if the scope of theproject is small. The deliverables from the Definition stage can be completed byconducting a JAD session with high?level managers. It is possible to have aFinalization phase after Planning and Definition that sells the business andleads to the Planning stage of the actual project.

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The starting point for any JAD process is the designation ofan executive sponsor. During the Planning phase, the facilitator should beworking closely with this sponsor to provide an orientation to the JAD processand JAD environment. The executive sponsor's full commitment to the project iscritical to its success.

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After an executive sponsor is identified, the next task is toestablish the need for the system by asking the following questions:

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>What are theexpected benefits?

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>What opportunitiesdoes it address?

(Video) Joint Application Development (JAD)

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>What problems wouldit resolve?

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>What are the risks?

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>How does it fit inwith the strategic direction of the organization?

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If it is determined that the project should be undertaken,the executive sponsor and facilitator select the team members who willparticipate in the Definition phase. You may also want to select the teammembers for the design sessions at this time. If this does not seem appropriate,begin working to develop the correct "mix" of people for the JAD session.(15,18)

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Preparation

To completethe Preparation stage, you must perform the followingtasks:

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Schedule designsessions.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Conduct orientationand training for design session participants.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Prepare thematerials, room, and software aids.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Customize the designsession agenda.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Conduct the kickoffmeeting.

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After the scope is set, the design sessions are scheduled andthe participating team members are informed.

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In most cases, a particular technique or methodology will befollowed in the JAD sessions. To ensure participation, the customer must beeducated in the terminology that will be used and the deliverables that will becreated in the JAD sessions.

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Other preparation tasks include preparing the room with theproper equipment (PC, workstation, overhead projector, flip charts, markers,white boards, and so forth), obtaining any software aids, and preparing thereference materials and definition documentation that will be referencedthroughout the design sessions. An agenda is also prepared so that theobjectives for each design session are clearly stated and the participants canstay focused on the work to be done.

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The final Preparation step is the kickoff meeting, at whichthe executive sponsor addresses the team members and shows support for the JADeffort. This meeting is a key component of JAD. In organizations using JAD forthe first time, the meeting will minimize resistance within the customer'sorganization and kindle a spirit of teamwork. A high?level explanation of theJAD process is given, preferably by the executive sponsor. If the sponsor isuncomfortable doing this, the facilitator can present the orientation. The goalsof the project are stated and everyone is made to feel a part of the process.Initial concerns are expressed, and the executive sponsor works to ease anyfears. The executive sponsor also gives a personal statement of support for thefacilitator.

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A successful orientation is key to starting off the JADprocess on a good footing. Everyone should leave with a sense of pride in whatis going to happen and with confidence that they will be performing a highlyvalued service for the company.(15,18)

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Design Sessions

To completethe Design Session component of JAD, you must perform the followingtasks:

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Review the projectscope, objectives, and definition document.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Identify data,process, and system requirements.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Identify systeminterfaces.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Develop aprototype.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Document decisions,issues, assumptions, and definitions of terms.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Assign someone toresolve all issues.

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The session objectives determine which techniques are used inthe design session and what deliverables are created. A good starting point,however, is to review the definition document that was prepared during thedefinition phase. This document outlines the project's scope, expected benefits,and high?level requirements.

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The facilitator should frequently review the session goalsand objectives, and report on how the session's progress relates to the overallproject. The facilitator should also designate a person who will be responsiblefor resolving each issue or concern documented during the session. A resolutiondate must also be assigned. Subsequent design sessions can then begin with adiscussion of any issues that have been resolved.(1,3)

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Finalization

To completethe Finalization component, you must perform the followingtasks:

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Complete the designdocuments.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Sign off on thedesign documents.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Make a presentationto the executive sponsor.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Demonstrate theprototype.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Obtain the executivesponsor's approval to proceed.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Evaluate the JADprocess.

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The firstgoal of the Finalization component is to obtain closure on the deliverables byreaching a team consensus that all necessary elements have been incorporated tofit the project's scope. The second goal is to produce a high?qualitypresentation that includes a prototype demonstration (if appropriate). The thirdgoal is to prepare a document that includes all of the deliverables that will bereferenced in the future development effort.

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The presentation and prototype demonstration should be givento the executive sponsor, as well as to other leaders. The goal is to getapproval to proceed to the next stage of development. The team members,executive sponsor, and facilitator should also take some time to evaluate theeffectiveness of the JAD process and to discuss ways to improve that process forfuture use.(1,3)

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Benefits of JAD

Benefits

The JADapproach provides the following benefits:

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Acceleratesdesign

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Enhancesquality

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Promotes teamworkwith the customer

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Creates a designfrom the customer's perspective

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Lowers developmentand maintenance costs

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JAD achieves these benefits because of the following factors:

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>The decision?makersare all present.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>The facilitatorkeeps the group focused on the goals.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Differing views arehandled immediately.

(Video) Joint Application Development (JAD)

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Most errors arecaught in the Analysis and Design stages.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>The system designreflects the user's desires.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Issues are resolvedquickly.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Assumptions aredocumented and understood.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>The process tends togain momentum, not lose it.

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When participants believe that they have had control over aproject's effort and content, they believe in the results as well. This sense ofownership is critical for the next step, whether that step is implementing theresults or selling them to others.(4)

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Testimonials

In Joint Application Development, Jane Woodand Denise Silver cite the following testimonials to the benefits of JAD:(6)

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Capers Jones states,"A study of over 60 projects ... showed that those projects that did not use JADmissed up to 35% of required functionality resulting in the need for up to 50%more code." The Capers Jones study determined that projects that used JAD missedonly 5 percentto 10percent of required functionality with minimal impact on the code.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>David Freedmanstates, "How do you design a system that users really want? ... You can't. Whatyoucan do is help usersdesign the systems they want."

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>"The successful useof JAD has pushed its use beyond traditional applications of the process. JAD isbeing used successfully for strategic systems and data planning, as well as forprojects outside the IS community."鈥擥eneral Electric

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>InThe Data ModelingHandbook,Michael C.Reingruber and William W. Gregory stress the importance of involving thecustomer, stating the following: "If business experts are not involved, yourmodeling effort will fail. There is no guarantee of success when businessexperts are involved. But there is no chance of success if they are not."

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Making JAD Successful

Participation Rules

The followingare general rules under which JAD participants shouldoperate:

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Gainconsensus.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Agree on a timelimit rule for disagreements.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Establish theexecutive sponsor as the tiebreaker.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Require mandatoryattendance.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Stress that allparticipants are equal regardless of job code.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Require openparticipation.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Allow only oneconversation to occur at a time.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Respond to ideas,not to people.

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These rules are designed to address issues that can interferewith participation and consensus, and to emphasize that participants' job titlesshould have no influence during a JAD session. The team can develop variationsof these rules, but be sure to set up the rules formally and post them somewherein the room. It is important that all the participants, as well as thefacilitator, contribute to enforcing these rules.(2)

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Tips for a Successful JAD

Follow thesuggestions below to ensure a successful JAD process:(2,12,14)

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Make sure thefacilitator is fully trained.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Conduct anorientation for all participants.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Make sure userrepresentatives are properly trained.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Do not begin untileach JAD role is filled.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Hold sessions offsite.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Hold sessions onlywhen all decision?makers are present.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Document allassumptions and issues.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Assignresponsibility and resolve all issues.

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JADCritical Success Factors

The following are critical success factors that requirebuy?in from the start:

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Prevent scopecreep.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Identify and addresscritical political and organizational issues early.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Make sure that allproject participants and key executive managers are committed to the JADtechniques.

<![if !supportLists]><![endif]>Divide largeprojects into manageable units.

Ifanyof these critical success factors are compromised, you greatly increase yourchances of failure.

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Modularizing large projects into manageable units can helpsustain interest and motivation during long JAD projects. By modularizing theproject you can apply a module?linked delivery approach in which each module isdelivered in a four? to six?month time frame.

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In Joint Application Development, Jane Wood and DeniseSilver present critical success factors in terms of the following "tencommandments" of JAD:(6)

<![if !supportLists]>1.<![endif]>JAD success requiresmanagement commitment.

<![if !supportLists]>2.<![endif]>Full?time participants mustattend the entire session.

<![if !supportLists]>3.<![endif]>JAD success requires atrained facilitator.

<![if !supportLists]>4.<![endif]>Make sure you have theright people in the session.

<![if !supportLists]>5.<![endif]>All participants are equal.

<![if !supportLists]>6.<![endif]>JAD preparation is asimportant as the JAD session itself.

<![if !supportLists]>7.<![endif]>Make a good agenda andstick to it.

<![if !supportLists]>8.<![endif]>Use appropriate tools andtechniques in the session.

<![if !supportLists]>9.<![endif]>Keep technical jargon to aminimum.

(Video) Business Analyst JAD Session Tutorial | Joint Application Development | Prototyping Tutorial

<![if !supportLists]>10.<![endif]>Produce a quality finaldocument quickly.

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Conclusion

JAD is used as atechnique for developing business system requirements and is typically used inthe early stages of a systems development project.The purpose of JAD is to bring together MIS andend users in a structured workshop setting; to extract consensus based systemrequirements.This is accomplished byusing a trained JAD facilitators and customized, planned agendas to assist theparticipant in arriving at complete, high quality requirements.Experience has shown that the JAD processsubstantially reduces development time, costs anderrors.

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References:

<![if !supportLists]>1.<![endif]> Andrews, Dorine C. andNaomi S. Leventhal. Fusion: Integrating IE, CASE, and JAD: A Handbook forreengineering the Systems Organization.Yourdon Press, 1994.

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  1. August, Judy H. Joint Application Design. Yourdon Press, 1991.

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  1. DeGrace, Peter and Leslie Stahl. Wicked Problems, Righteous Solutions.Yourdon Press, 1990.

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  1. Martin, James and Carma McClure. Diagramming Techniques for Analysts and Programmers. Prentice-Hall, 1985.

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  1. Reingruber, Michael C. and William W. Gregory. The Data Modeling Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, 1994.

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  1. Wood, Jane and Silver. Joint Application Development. John Wiley & Sons, 1995.

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  1. Yourdon, Edward. Decline and Fall of the American Programmer. Yourdon Press, 1992.

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  1. Zachman, John. A Framework for Information Systems Architecture. IBM Systems Journal (1987).

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  1. Hoffer, George and Valacich. Modern Systems Analysis and Design. Prentice Hall 2002.

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  1. Marchand, Davenport and Dickson. Mastering Information Management. Prentice Hall 2000.

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  1. Engler, Natalie, "Bringing in the Users", Computerworld, Nov 25, 1996.

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  1. Roman Soltys and Anthony Crawford. JAD for Business Plans and Designs.http://www.thefacilitatio.com/htdocs/article11.html.com

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  1. Cline, Alan. JAD for Requirements Collection and Management. http://www.carolla.com/wp-jad.htm

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  1. Nurre, Susan. The Habits of and Effective Facilitator. http://www.thefacilitator.com/htdocs/articles2.html

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  1. University of Texas at Auston. Human Resource Services 鈥 Information Systems. http://www.utexas.edu/hr/is/pubs/jad.html#what

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  1. Defense Information Systems. Operational Process Improvement. http://www.opio.disa.mil/Products/JAD_RAD.htm

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  1. Requirements Engineering. Tools and Techniques. http://www.jrcase.mq.edu.au/~didar/seweb/tools.html

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  1. Meeting Networks. Application Descriptions. http://entsol.com/html/application_descriptions_7.html

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  1. Creative Data. Development Methodology 鈥 JAD.http://credata.com/research/jad.html

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  1. Moeller, Walter. Facilitated Information Gathering Sessions. http://principlepartners.com/

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  1. PCS Networks. Joint Applications Development http://www.pcsn.com/services/app/jad.htm

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(Video) Systems Analysis and Design - JAD, Agile, etc.

FAQs

In which situation JAD is a best solution for any organization? 鈥

JAD is successful in reducing time because the user and other key members are heavily involved in the process. The goal is to get the design right the first time, thereby reducing different iterations. JAD is usually conducted in at a location other than the place where the people involved work.

What is joint application development JAD )? Who is involved in the JAD process? 鈥

JAD (Joint Application Development) is a methodology that involves the client or end user in the design and development of an application, through a succession of collaborative workshops called JAD sessions.

How do I prepare for a JAD session? 鈥

These are some of the very same practices used to great success by our own Sagitec delivery teams.
  1. 1) Set Clear Objectives. The overall goal of the project is clear: design, develop, and implement the software system. ...
  2. 2) Stay Focused / Control the Scope. ...
  3. 3) Find Suitable Facilities. ...
  4. 4) Be Respectful.
6 Dec 2011

What is the advantage and disadvantage of JAD? 鈥

It also ensures better understanding and improved product quality that meets stakeholders' expectations. On the other hand, the disadvantages include the fact that it may be too expensive if the size of the project do not merit with the size of the process.

When should JAD be used? 鈥

JAD is used as a technique for developing business system requirements and is typically used in the early stages of a systems development project. The purpose of JAD is to bring together MIS and end users in a structured workshop setting; to extract consensus based system requirements.

How do I run a successful JAD session? 鈥

The JAD session follows meeting rules:
  1. Only one team member talks at a time.
  2. Talk to the subject of the meeting.
  3. Requirements come from the user not the Proposal Team.
  4. Requirements are authorized by the user.
  5. Requirements are authored by the user.

Which is an advantage of the joint application design JAD approach? 鈥

Which is an advantage of the joint application design (JAD) approach? It incorporates varying viewpoints from different functional areas of an organization to help ensure that collected requirements for an application is not too narrow or one-dimensional in focus.

How is JAD better than traditional information gathering techniques? 鈥

The authors have outlined some advantages of prototyping.It is better than traditionalmethods because the desired system is under continuous improvement until user requirementsare clear and understood.It is also better because concrete forms of possible designs are usuallyeasier to evaluate than abstract forms.

What happens in a JAD session? 鈥

A JAD is a Joint Application Development (or Design) session. It is an opportunity for stakeholders with different points of view to come together to understand business requirements and brainstorm what the best technical approach might be for meeting the customer's needs.

Why is joint application development important? 鈥

Advantages of Joint Application Development :

Due to the close interactions, progress is faster. JAD helps to accelerate design and also to enhance quality. JAD cheers the team to push each other which leads them to work faster and also to deliver on time.

Is JAD part of Agile? 鈥

JAD and RAD are existing techniques that fit neatly into the Agile software development framework.

Are there JAD sessions in Agile? 鈥

Why JAD Sessions required? Meeting and collaborating with Business and Technical team, JAD sessions are very common in Business Analysis Role. Particularly when we are working in Agile Methodology.

What is the difference between brainstorming and JAD sessions? 鈥

JAD (Joint application design) is similar to brainstorming. Unlike a couple of hours for brainstorming, JAD sessions last for typically about 3 days. JAD produces high level, specific software models including data, functions and behavior.

Which of the following is another term for a JAD session? 鈥

Cards
Term A(n) ______ is a number(s) or character(s) appended to or inserted in a primary key value.Definition check digit
Term In some database programs, a data file is referred to as a(n) ______.Definition table
Term Which of the following is another term for a JAD session?Definition focus group
97 more rows
12 Nov 2018

Is an advantage of JAD quizlet? 鈥

When properly used, JAD can result in a more accurate statement of system requirements, a better understanding of common goals, and a stronger commitment to the success of the new system.

What is joint application design in system analysis? 鈥

Joint application design (JAD) is a process used in the life cycle area of the dynamic systems development method (DSDM) to collect business requirements while developing new information systems for a company.

What are the 4 phases of rapid application development? 鈥

Stage 1: Business Modeling. Stage 2: Data Modeling. Stage 3: Process Modeling. Stage 4: Application Generation.

What is the role of scribe in JAD? 鈥

Scribe: The scribe participates in JAD sessions by capturing the discussion and ensuring that there is clarity around decisions. Following the JAD sessions, the scribe will create the final version of the requirements documentation.

What is JAD and JAR sessions? 鈥

Common activities of a JAR/JRP/JADr session include understanding the AS IS situation, identifying current business problems, analyzing their causes, determining benefits and capturing the business requirements and/or business rules. These early project activities are often neglected in an effort to 鈥渟ave time鈥.

When eliciting requirements the most commonly used technique is? 鈥

#3) Interview. This is the most common technique used for requirement elicitation. Interview techniques should be used for building strong relationships between business analysts and stakeholders.

What is a JAD session quizlet? 鈥

Joint Application Design (JAD) A structured process in which users, managers, and analysts work together for several days on a series of intensive meetings to specify or review system requirements.

What is a characteristic of JAD? 鈥

Which of the following is a characteristic of joint application design (JAD)? It centers on a structured workshop in which users and system professionals come together to develop an application.

What requirements JAD? 鈥

JAD is a requirements-definition and software system design methodology in which stakeholders, subject matter experts (SME), end-users, business analysts, software architects and developers attend collaborative workshops (called JAD sessions) to work out a system's details.

What is a joint application? 鈥

Definition. A joint application is when you apply for joint car finance with another person, using both your personal details to support your application. A decision is made by the lender, based on the income, debts and credit histories of both parties.

Where are JAD sessions normally held? 鈥

A typical JAD session can last between four days and an entire week and is usually held away from the main office (3). A typical JAD team is has five to eight roles depending on the project.

How prototyping is better or worse than traditional methods? 鈥

Prototyping may be worse than traditional methods where formal requirements are not documented, where prototypes become idiosyncratic to the initial user, where issues of data sharing and integration with other systems are ignored, and where SDLC checks are bypassed.

How prototyping can be used during requirements determination? 鈥

Prototyping can be used during requirements determination to collect user requirementsand present them in the form of a working system prototype. Users can look at, play with, andcompare the prototype to their system requirements. Analysts can then adjust the prototype tobetter fit what the users have in mind.

What is JAD what are its benefits and who are the key players what are their roles? 鈥

Joint Application Development (JAD) is a process used to collect business requirements while developing new information systems for a company. The JAD process may also include approaches for enhancing user participation, expediting development and improving the quality of specifications.

Why is joint application development important? 鈥

Advantages of Joint Application Development :

Due to the close interactions, progress is faster. JAD helps to accelerate design and also to enhance quality. JAD cheers the team to push each other which leads them to work faster and also to deliver on time.

Where are JAD sessions normally held quizlet? 鈥

JADs are best held at the corporate office where everyone's office is nearby. Describe the contemporary methods for collection systems requirements. Describe the typical participants in a JAD.

What are the 4 phases of rapid application development? 鈥

Stage 1: Business Modeling. Stage 2: Data Modeling. Stage 3: Process Modeling. Stage 4: Application Generation.

Is JAD part of Agile? 鈥

JAD and RAD are existing techniques that fit neatly into the Agile software development framework.

Who participates in joint application development? 鈥

However, it will take the participants from one to three hours to re-establish the team psychology of the initial workshop. Select the participants: These are the business users, the IT professionals, and the outside experts that will be needed for a successful workshop.

What is the difference between brainstorming and JAD sessions? 鈥

JAD (Joint application design) is similar to brainstorming. Unlike a couple of hours for brainstorming, JAD sessions last for typically about 3 days. JAD produces high level, specific software models including data, functions and behavior.

What happens in a JAD session? 鈥

A JAD is a Joint Application Development (or Design) session. It is an opportunity for stakeholders with different points of view to come together to understand business requirements and brainstorm what the best technical approach might be for meeting the customer's needs.

What requirements JAD? 鈥

JAD is a requirements-definition and software system design methodology in which stakeholders, subject matter experts (SME), end-users, business analysts, software architects and developers attend collaborative workshops (called JAD sessions) to work out a system's details.

What is a jar session? 鈥

JAR SESSIONS STORY. A collaboration between award-winning chef Paul Virant and local Midwest farmers, each Jar Session highlights thoughtfully chosen ingredients to create a memorable harmony of flavors. Every jar is music in your mouth.

Where are JAD sessions normally held? 鈥

A typical JAD session can last between four days and an entire week and is usually held away from the main office (3). A typical JAD team is has five to eight roles depending on the project.

What is a JAD session quizlet? 鈥

Joint Application Design (JAD) A structured process in which users, managers, and analysts work together for several days on a series of intensive meetings to specify or review system requirements.

What is the primary purpose of having project requirements? 鈥

Project requirements are conditions or tasks that must be completed to ensure the success or completion of the project. They provide a clear picture of the work that needs to be done. They're meant to align the project's resources with the objectives of the organization.

Which methodology is used in rapid application development? 鈥

RAD methodology is a software design methodology that's designed to counter the rigidity of other traditional software development models鈥搘here you can't make changes easily after the initial development is complete.

Why rapid application development is important? 鈥

RAD helps to rapidly develop prototypes for testing functions and features, without having to worry about any effects on the end product. With RAD, you can change the design, add/ remove a functionality, clean it up by removing all the extra fluff that you don't want, all without even harming the end-product.

What is the difference between agile and rapid application development? 鈥

Although RAD and the agile methodologies share similar values, with regards to flexibility, shorter delivery time, and high customer interaction and satisfaction, RAD is primarily focused on prototypes while agile is mostly focused on breaking down the project into features which are then delivered in various sprints ...

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